Pelczynski, A.Z. Critiques of Hegel offered by the Left Hegelians radically diverted Hegel's thinking into new directions and eventually came to form a large part of the literature on and about Hegel. When he entered the Latin School two years later, he already knew the first declension, having been taught it by his mother. However, Hegel used this classification only once and he attributed the terminology to Kant. This focus on freedom is what generates Plato's notion (in the Phaedo, Republic and Timaeus) of the soul as having a higher or fuller kind of reality than that possessed by inanimate objects. (Karl Barth. A number of other works on the philosophy of history, religion, aesthetics and the history of philosophy[123] were compiled from the lecture notes of his students and published posthumously. Kant derived his own table of categories (the twelve pure or "ancestral" concepts of the understanding that structure all experience irrespective of content) from a standard term-logical table of judgments, noting also that, ...the true ancestral concepts...also have their equally pure derivative concepts, which could by no means be passed over in a complete system of transcendental philosophy, but with the mere mention of which I can be satisfied in a merely critical essay. Joan Staumbaugh). T. R. Vickroy and Susan E. Blow—who were both minor associates of the St. Louis Hegelians—independently of each other translated various chapters from Göschel's book into English, and had their translations published in. For this reason, Hegel's Logic begins with the summum genus, "Being, pure Being," ("and God has the absolutely undisputed right that the beginning be made with him"[83]) from which are derived more concrete concepts such as becoming, determinate being, something, and infinity. This notion of identity in difference, which is bound up with his conception of contradiction and negativity, is a principal feature differentiating Hegel's thought from other philosophers. Ludwig Fischer and his mother (whom Hegel may have offered to marry following the death of her husband) stayed behind in Jena. [141] The physicist and philosopher Ludwig Boltzmann also criticized the obscure complexity of Hegel's works, referring to Hegel's writing as an "unclear thoughtless flow of words". Press. Criticism of Hegel has been widespread in the 19th and the 20th centuries. After the period of Bruno Bauer, Hegel's influence waned until the philosophy of British Idealism and the 20th-century Hegelian Western Marxism that began with György Lukács. Hegel further attests that God (as Jesus) not only died, but "[...] rather, a reversal takes place: God, that is to say, maintains himself in the process, and the latter is only the death of death. He was also said to be poor in oral exposition, a deficiency that was to dog him throughout his life. Kant used the term Veränderung (change) instead of Werden, however, and the designation of ontological categories by name is itself a complex topic. In other words, it is not enough to consider propositions, or even the content of consciousness; "it is worthwhile to ask in every instance what kind of spirit would entertain such propositions, hold such views, and have such a consciousness. [139] Hegel was described by Schopenhauer as a "clumsy charlatan". Terry Pinkard situates Hegel firmly in the historical context of his times. Hegel's posthumous works have had remarkable influence on subsequent works on religion, aesthetics, and history because of the comprehensive accounts of the subject matters considered within the lectures, with Heidegger for example in Poetry, Language, Thought characterizing Hegel's Lectures on Aesthetics as the "most comprehensive reflection on the nature of art that the West possesses—comprehensive because it stems from metaphysics."[124]. Mr. Pinkard talked about his book Hegel: A Biography, published by Cambridge University . [149] This concept of Hegel as a hermetic thinker was elaborated by Glenn Alexander Magee,[150] who argued that interpreting Hegel's body of work as an expression of mysticism and hermetic ideas leads to a more accurate understanding of Hegel. Author's preface to "On The Fourfold Root of the Principle of sufficient reason. C’est là ce qu’on pourrait appeler sa période Schellingienne : fidèle disciple, il se borne à défe… Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (/ˈheɪɡəl/;[27][28] German: [ˈɡeːɔʁk ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈheːɡl̩];[28][29] 27 August 1770 – 14 November 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure in German idealism. The infinitude of spirit is its inwardness, in an abstract sense its pure inwardness, and this is its thought, and this abstract thought is a real present infinitude, while its concrete inwardness consists in the fact that this thought is Spirit. The origin of philosophy is to be dated from Heraclitus. Hegel was appointed University Rector of the University in October 1829, but his term ended in September 1830. Finite things do not determine themselves because, as "finite" things, their essential character is determined by their boundaries over against other finite things, so in order to become "real" they must go beyond their finitude ("finitude is only as a transcending of itself").[95]:145. [117], Spirit is immortal; it is eternal; and it is immortal and eternal in virtue of the fact that it is infinite, that it has no such spatial finitude as we associate with the body; when we speak of it being five feet in height, two feet in breadth and thickness, that it is not the Now of time, that the content of its knowledge does not consist of these countless midges, that its volition and freedom have not to do with the infinite mass of existing obstacles, nor of the aims and activities which such resisting obstacles and hindrances have to encounter. [73] Although Napoleon chose not to close down Jena as he had other universities, the city was devastated and students deserted it in droves, making Hegel's financial prospects even worse. That history should resemble this dialectic indicated to Hegel that history is something rational. Mit Kommentar zur Einführung in seine Philosophie, Heidelberg 1949. E. Metzke, Hegels Vorreden. She started her career as a child model with Wilhelmina Models before turning her attention to acting, making her film debut in That Night (1992) and later appearing in My Father the Hero (1994) as well as Under Siege 2: Dark Territory (1995). The book explores the life and ideas of German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich . Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Hegel's system is often presented in the form of a Sierpiński triangle due to his tendency to group concepts by triads. Soon after, his illegitimate son Ludwig Fischer (now ten years old) joined the Hegel household in April 1817, having spent time in an orphanage[59]:354–55 after the death of his mother Christiana Burkhardt.[59]:356. [107] His thoughts on the person of Jesus Christ stood out from the theologies of the Enlightenment. Lectures on the Philosophy of History, also translated as Lectures on the Philosophy of World History is a major work by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831), originally given as lectures at the University of Berlin in 1822, 1828, and 1830. Christened Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, he was known as Wilhelm to his close family. As an absolute idealist inspired by Christian insights and grounded in his mastery of a fantastic fund of concrete knowledge, Hegel found a place for everything—logical, natural, human, and divine—in a dialectical scheme that repeatedly swung from thesis to antithesis and back again to a higher and richer synthesis. Hegel devoted himself primarily to delivering lectures; his lectures on aesthetics, the philosophy of religion, the philosophy of history and the history of philosophy were published posthumously from students' notes. Those without this background would be advised to begin with one of the many general introductions to his thought. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, (born August 27, 1770, Stuttgart, Württemberg [Germany]—died November 14, 1831, Berlin), German philosopher who developed a dialectical scheme that emphasized the progress of history and of ideas from thesis to antithesis and thence to a synthesis. So he, too, sometimes spoke of God and, more often, of the divine; and because he occasionally took pleasure in insisting that he was really closer to this or that Christian tradition than some of the theologians of his time, he has sometimes been understood to have been a Christian. While Aristotle criticized Plato's "Forms", he preserved Plato's ontological implications for self-determination: ethical reasoning, the soul's pinnacle in the hierarchy of nature, the order of the cosmos and reasoned arguments for a prime mover. Hegel was putting the finishing touches to it, The Phenomenology of Spirit, as Napoleon engaged Prussian troops on 14 October 1806 in the Battle of Jena on a plateau outside the city. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? [112][113][114], Hegel conceived of the immortality of the soul in the following manner in reference to Christianity:[115][116], Thus the immortality of the soul must not be represented as first entering the sphere of reality only at a later stage; it is the actual present quality of spirit; spirit is eternal, and for this reason is already present. God rises again to life, and thus things are reversed". Within this work, the category of life is conceived to be the absolute idea in the form of the subjective concept; an illustrative contrast may be seen in contrasting this with how the category of cognition is thought as being the absolute idea in the form of the judgement. There's a lot of academic backbiting and university politics. Politically, they were orthodox. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, histoire et biographie de Hegel. Hegel was the last of the great philosophical system builders of modern times. Voici une biographie détaillée de Hegel (1770 – 1831). [147], Isaiah Berlin listed Hegel as one of the six architects of modern authoritarianism who undermined liberal democracy, along with Rousseau, Claude Adrien Helvétius, Fichte, Saint-Simon and Joseph de Maistre. This means that Jesus, as the Son of God, is posited by God over and against himself as other. He studied in Stuttgart, and after graduating from the gymnasium there he began to study philosophy and theology in the seminary in Tübingen. Hi Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (Agosto 27, 1770 – Nobyembre 14, 1831) usa nga Aleman nga pilosopo nga natawo ha Stuttgart, Württemberg, nga yana amo an salatan-katundan Alemanya. For his god, Hegel does not take the logos of Heraclitus but refers to the nous of Anaxagoras, although he may well have regarded them the same as he continues to refer to god's plan, which is identical to God. His fame spread and his lectures attracted students from all over Germany and beyond. W. Marx, Hegels Phänomenologie des Geistes. Born on 27 August 1770 in Stuttgart, Württemberg, Germany, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a philosopher, author, and a key component among classical German philosophers. [138] Logical positivists such as Ayer and the Vienna Circle criticized both Hegelian philosophy and its supporters, such as Bradley. Biographie : Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel est un philosophe allemand. [59]:4, At the age of three, Hegel went to the German School. A. Pelczynski and Shlomo Avineri. Nicht mit der Welt, sondern mit der Freiheit bringt Klaus Vieweg Hegel schon im Titel seiner Biographie zusammen. Il défend dans un ouvrage la pensée de son ami Schelling contre celle de Fichte, ce qui le fait connaître. Today this faction continues among conservative Protestants, such as the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, which was founded by missionaries from Germany when the Hegelian Right was active. Hegel died in 1831. Contradiction and negation have the dynamic quality that every point in each domain of reality—consciousness, history, philosophy, art, nature and society—leads to further development until a rational unity is reached that preserves the contradictions as phases and sub-parts by lifting them up (Aufhebung) to a higher unity. Maurice Merleau-Ponty (trans. There are views of Hegel's thought as the summit of early 19th-century German philosophical idealism. This evolution was the result of God's desire for complete self-awareness. This article treats Hegel’s life, thought, and influence. [125] After less than a generation, Hegel's philosophy was banned by the Prussian right-wing and was firmly rejected by the left-wing in multiple official writings. Heraclitus did not form any abstract nouns from his ordinary use of "to be" and "to become" and seemed to oppose any identity A to any other identity B, C and so on, which is not-A. [101] In fact, Hegel's distinctions as to what he meant by civil society are often unclear. Hegel was the last of the great system builders of Western philosophy and the greatest and most extravagant representative of the school of absolute idealism. ), The Oldest Systematic Program of German Idealism, The Difference Between Fichte's and Schelling's Systems of Philosophy, Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel bibliography, Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften, Vorlesungen über de Geschichte der Philosophie, "Adam Smith's Influence on Hegel's Philosophical Writings", Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, "Duden | He-gel | Rechtschreibung, Bedeutung, Definition", "Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie", "MDZ-Reader – Band – Von den Beweisen für die Unsterblichkeit der menschlichen Seele im Lichte der spekulativen Philosophie / Göschel, Carl Friedrich", "Hegel and Clausewitz: Convergence on Method, Divergence on Ethics", On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason, « Der Instinkt der Vernünftigkeit » and other texts, Hegel, as the National Philosopher of Germany (1874), "The Life of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel", Scans of all (original, German) books from Hegel (all editions) between 1807 and 1850 as PDFs at hegel.net, Works by or about Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Relationship between religion and science, Alliance of European Conservatives and Reformists, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Georg_Wilhelm_Friedrich_Hegel&oldid=995579405, People educated at Eberhard-Ludwigs-Gymnasium, Articles with Latin-language sources (la), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Articles needing additional references from August 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Francke, Kuno, Howard, William Guild, Schiller, Friedrich, 1913–1914, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 20:41. According to Benedetto Croce, the Italian Fascist Giovanni Gentile "holds the honor of having been the most rigorous neo-Hegelian in the entire history of Western philosophy and the dishonor of having been the official philosopher of Fascism in Italy". He is considered one of the fundamental figures of modern Western philosophy, with his influence extending to the entire range of contemporary philosophical issues, from aesthetics to ontology to politics, both in the analytic and continental tradition. Son œuvre est l'une des plus représentatives de l'Idéalisme allemand et a eu une influence décisive sur l'ensemble de la philosophie du XXe siècle. For Hegel, the inner movement of reality is the process of God thinking as manifested in the evolution of the universe of nature and thought; Hegel argued that, when fully understood, reality is being thought by God as manifested in a person's comprehension of this process. With his finances drying up quickly, Hegel was under great pressure to deliver his book, the long-promised introduction to his philosophical system. In accordance with his wishes, Hegel was buried in the Dorotheenstadt cemetery next to Fichte and Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand Solger. For Hegel, analysis or comprehension of a thing or idea reveals that underneath its apparently simple identity or unity is an underlying inner contradiction. as a mystic and hermetic thinker. [129] No Hegelians of the period ever referred to themselves as "Right Hegelians", which was a term of insult originated by David Strauss, a self-styled Left Hegelian. Auf den ersten Blick scheint darin eine Fokussierung zu liegen. the Reign of Terror that followed) and would result in a "synthesis" (e.g. [59]:548 Early the following year, Hegel's sister Christiane committed suicide by drowning. Here, Hegel published his Philosophy of Right (1821). Hegel's thought is revolutionary in that it is a philosophy of absolute negation—as long as absolute negation is at the center, systematization remains open, making it possible for human beings to become subjects. Updates? As the new semester began in October, Hegel returned to Berlin in the mistaken belief that the epidemic had largely subsided. Achat Hegel - Biographie à prix bas sur Rakuten. She died of bilious fever (Gallenfieber) when Hegel was thirteen. Nagsurat hiya parte han kaagi, politiko, relihiyon, arte, lohika ngan metapisika. [96] Böhme had written that the Fall of Man was a necessary stage in the evolution of the universe. Hegel's main philosophical project was to take these contradictions and tensions and interpret them as part of a comprehensive, evolving, rational unity that in different contexts he called "the absolute Idea" (Science of Logic, sections 1781–1783) or "absolute knowledge" (Phenomenology of Spirit, "(DD) Absolute Knowledge"). (Hegel, "How the Ordinary Human Understanding Takes Philosophy as displayed in the works of Mr. Krug", Jon Bartley Stewart. Published in 2000, this is the first major biography of Hegel in English. [100] Broadly speaking, the term was split, like Hegel's followers, to the political left and right. "Why did Hegel not become for the Protestant world something similar to what Thomas Aquinas was for Roman Catholicism?" The Right Hegelians, the allegedly direct disciples of Hegel at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, advocated a Protestant orthodoxy and the political conservatism of the post-Napoleon Restoration period. Hegel's illegitimate son, Ludwig Fischer, had died shortly before while serving with the Dutch army in Batavia and the news of his death never reached his father. Hegel est un philosophe allemand qui a construit un immense système ordonnant toutes les connaissances de l’époque.Il est probablement le philosophe le plus complexe à lire, nous vous présentons donc une introduction sur sa philosophie qui s’efforce de … Also in 1797, the unpublished and unsigned manuscript of "The Oldest Systematic Program of German Idealism" was written. G.W.F. This sparked a renewed interest in Hegel reflected in the work of Herbert Marcuse, Theodor W. Adorno, Ernst Bloch, Raya Dunayevskaya, Alexandre Kojève and Gotthard Günther among others. [130], The Left Hegelians also influenced Marxism, which has in turn inspired global movements, from the Russian Revolution, the Chinese Revolution and myriad of practices up until the present moment.[130]. p. 1. [59]:80 While in Frankfurt, Hegel composed the essay "Fragments on Religion and Love". She died of bilious fever(Gallenfieber) when Hegel w…